Trauma Symptom Checklist for Children
COPYRIGHT: Psychological Assessment Resources (PAR)
The TSCC evaluates posttraumatic symptomatology in children and adolescents (ages 8 to 16, with normative adjustments for 17 year-olds), including the effects of child abuse (sexual, physical, and psychological) and neglect, other interpersonal violence, witnessing trauma to others, major accidents, and disasters. The scale measures not only posttraumatic stress, but also other symptom clusters found in some traumatized children.
The TSCC is a 54-item self-report instrument consisting of two validity scales:
- Underresponse [UND] and
- Hyperresponse (HYP])
and six clinical scales:
- Anxiety (ANX),
- Depression (DEP),
- Posttraumatic Stress (PTS),
- Sexual Concerns (SC),
- Dissociation (DIS), and
- Anger (ANG).
Two of these scales have subscales (Sexual Concerns contains Sexual Preoccupation [SC-P] and Sexual Distress [SC-D]; Dissociation contains Fantasy [D-F] and Overt Dissociation [D-OD]). The items of the TSCC are explicitly written at a level thought to be understood by children eight years of age or older. The items of the TSCC and a place for answers are contained in a test booklet. Each symptom item is rated according to its frequency of occurrence using a four point scale ranging from 0 ("never") to 3 ("almost all of the time"). The TSCC requires approximately 10-20 minutes to complete for all but the most traumatized or clinically impaired children, and can be scored and profiled in approximately 10 minutes. There is a 44-item Alternate version of the TSCC (the TSCC-A) that does not contain Sexual Concerns items, for use in circumstances where sexual item content must be avoided.
EQUIPMENT NEEDED: Item booklet, profile forms, and the professional manual. A computer scoring program is also available, but is optional.
PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES: Various studies using the TSCC (and TSCC-A) indicate that it is reliable (alphas in the mid to high 80s for all scales but Sexual Concerns, which tends to be in the high 60s and low 70s) and has convergent and predictive validity in samples of traumatized and nontraumatized children and adolescents. However, selected TSCC scales were not predictive of childhood leukemia status in one study (Kazak, et al, 1997). In addition to tapping posttraumatic difficulties, the TSCC appears to be sensitive to the effects of therapy for abused children (e.g., Cohen & Mannarino, 1992; Lanktree & Briere, 1995) and the effects of child protection systems intervention (e.g., Henry, 1997). The validity scales appear to be useful, especially in identifying underreporting in traumatized children (e.g., Davies & Flannery, 1998). Normative data on the TSCC/TSCC-A was derived from large samples (total N>3,000) of nonclinical children across the United States (Evans, et al, 1994; Friedrich, 1995; Singer, et al., 1995). Per the test manual (Briere, 1996), separate norms and T-scores are available according to sex and age (8-12 and 13-16). 17 year olds can be evaluated on the TSCC using 16-year old norms, with only minor adjustments. Data on race differences are included, although race was not a major predictor of TSCC scores. The TSCC has been translated into several languages in order to study the effects of trauma in other cultures. For example, research on the French Canadian translation suggests that it has validity for Franco-Quebec children (Wright, Friedrich, Cyr, Theriault, Perron, Lussier, & Sabourin, 1998).
The TSCC was published by PAR in early 1996.
or using the TSCC
[Note: With a few
exceptions, this list refers to published articles, as opposed
to chapters or books. Not all relevant sources may have been
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